Tobacco use is one of the leading causes of preventable premature mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking tobacco can cause many chronic conditions, like cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory disease. In fact, according to a recently published report by Cancer Care Ontario there were nearly 10,000 new cases of cancer in Ontario that could be attributed to tobacco smoking in 2009.
Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is defined as the number of deaths in a population that are caused by smoking. Smoking-attributable hospitalization (SAH) is defined as the number of hospital stays that are caused by smoking. Both SAM and SAH are calculated by estimating the Smoking-Attributable Fraction (SAF) for specific smoking-related causes (e.g. lung cancer). The number of deaths or hospitalizations attributable to smoking for each of these causes are calculated separately and then added together to determine the total number of deaths or hospitalizations that were caused by smoking. The data presented on this page follows the method published in the 2014 US Surgeon General’s report (Chapter 12).
Smoking Attributable Mortality
In Simcoe Muskoka, for the five-year period between 2007 and 2011, there were approximately 500 deaths per year that could be attributed to smoking. Smoking-attributable deaths also accounted for more than one-in-ten of all deaths during this five-year period. The age-standardized rate for smoking-attributable deaths during this time period was 159 (145.1, 172.6) per 100,000 adults 35 years of age and older. This was significantly higher than the Ontario rate of smoking-attributable deaths during the same period of time, which was 125 (122.0, 127.0) per 100,000 adults 35 years of age and older. The rate of smoking-attributable deaths in Simcoe Muskoka from 2000 to 2006 was 178 (161.5, 193.5) per 100,000 adults 35 years and older. This was directionally higher than the rate observed for the most recent five years; however, this difference was not statistically significant.
The majority of smoking-attributable deaths were due to lung cancer, COPD and ischemic heart disease (IHD), which accounted for more than three-quarters of all smoking attributable deaths in Simcoe Muskoka over this time period. Smoking attributable deaths were higher in males when compared with females for all disease groups other than COPD.
Smoking Attributable Hospitalizations
In Simcoe Muskoka, for the six-year period between 2007 and 2012, there were over 2,000 hospitalizations per year that could be attributed to smoking. The age-standardized rate for smoking-attributable hospitalizations during this time period was 642 (614.6, 670.2) per 100,000 adults 35 years of age and older. This was significantly lower than rate of smoking-attributable hospitalizations in Simcoe Muskoka from 2003 to 2006, which was 826 (792.3, 860.2) per 100,000 adults 35 years and older.
The majority of these hospital stays were due to COPD and ischemic heart disease (IHD), which accounted for more than half of all smoking attributable hospitalizations in Simcoe Muskoka over this time period. Smoking attributable hospitalizations were higher in males when compared with females for all disease groups other than COPD.
Based on data available in the Cost of Acute Care Hospital Stays by Medical Condition in Canada, 2004-2005 report produced by the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), an estimated twenty million dollars is spent on smoking-attributable hospital stays for Simcoe Muskoka residents each year. More than one-quarter of these costs were related to hospital stays for seniors 65 years and older due to COPD.