General Fertility Rate
The general fertility rate (GFR) is the total number of live births per 1,000 women of reproductive age (ages 15 to 49 years) in a population per year. This is a more refined way to measure fertility in a population than crude birth rate because the GFR accounts for the female population ages 15 to 49 years in the denominator, rather than the whole population. Despite this, differences in GFR may be due to underlying differences in the age structure of the female population over time or across populations of interest.
The general fertility rate has declined in Simcoe Muskoka (55 live births/1,000 females ages 15-49 years) and Ontario (52 live births/1,000 females ages 15-49 years) in 1986 to 40 live births/1,000 females ages 15-49 years in Simcoe Muskoka and 42 live births per 1,000 women ages 15-49 years in Ontario in 2011.
Total Fertility Rate
The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is the average number of children that would be born per female if all females lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to the age-specific fertility rates for that area and period. Without immigration, population size declines when the TFR is less than 2.1 children per female.
Decreased fertility rates have been associated with increased urbanization, higher levels of education in females, higher participation rates in the labour force for females, prevention of unwanted pregnancies, greater access to abortion, unstable employment, and economic instability.
In 2011, the TFR in Simcoe Muskoka was 1.54 children per female ages 15 to 49 years, which is similar to the Ontario rate of 1.52 children per female ages 15 to 49 years.