Map of Simcoe Muskoka

Leading Causes

Leading Causes of Hospitalization

Overall
By Sex
By Age Group

Overall

The leading causes of hospitalizations used in this page are based on the chapters found in International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) and the International Shortlist for Hospital Morbidity Tabulation (ISHMT) adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) 1 with modifications discussed and approved by the Leading Cause Group subcommittee of the Core Indicators Working Group, Association of Public Health Epidemiologist in Ontario (APHEO).

Hospitalizations are counted at patient discharge as recorded in the Hospital Discharge Abstract Database (DAD). Causes are based on the most responsible diagnosis (diagnosis associated with the longest duration of treatment) during a given hospital stay. Mental Disorders (ICD-10 Chapter 5) are excluded because of changes in the way these data are reported by hospitals. Hospital stays due to pregnancy and birth (ICD-10 Chapter 15) were also excluded, because these do not represent burden of illness and are captured in the birth outcomes statistics (see Pregnancy and Before). Factors influencing health status & contact with health services (ICD-10 Chapter 21) and provisional codes for research and temporary assignment (ICD-10 Chapter 23) were also excluded as they do not represent diseases or conditions.

Over the five years between 2011 and 2015, there were more than 160,000 hospitalizations (as defined above) among residents of Simcoe Muskoka. The number one cause of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, in Simcoe Muskoka during this time period were diseases of circulatory system, which accounted for 20% of all hospital stays. The other leading causes of hospitalizations, by ICD-10 chapter, in Simcoe Muskoka during this time period were: diseases of digestive system (15%), injury & poisoning (12%), diseases of respiratory system (11%) and neoplasms (9.5%).

The leading causes of hospitalizations for Ontario as a whole over this same time period were quite similar to what was observed in Simcoe Muskoka as depicted in figure one below.

Figure One

120306LCoHbyArea 

When looking at the ISHMT causes 1 of hospitalization in Simcoe Muskoka between 2011 and 2015 (combined), COPD and AMI (heart attack) were the leading causes, each accounting for 4% of all hospitalizations. Other leading causes were: arthrosis of the knee (includes knee replacement), complications of surgical or medical care, heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and pneumonia, each accounting for approximately 3% of all hospitalizations (see figure two).

Figure Two

120306LCoHISHMT_PIE
 

By Sex

In Simcoe Muskoka between 2011 and 2015, the leading cause of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, for both males and females were diseases of circulatory system. However, the proportion of hospitalizations for diseases of circulatory system was higher for males (24%) when compared with females (16%). Diseases of digestive system, diseases of respiratory system, injuries & poisoning, and neoplasms were other leading causes of hospitalizations for both sexes. Hospitalizations for diseases of genitourinary system (e.g. kidney, bladder, internal reproductive organs and external genitalia) were nearly twice as high for females (11%) than for males (7%) during this time period.

Figure three compares the leading causes of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, for males and females in Simcoe Muskoka between 2011 and 2015 (combined).

Figure Three

120306LCoHbySexSMDHU 

The leading causes of hospitalizations, according to the ISHMT groupings 1, for males in Simcoe Muskoka between 2011 and 2015 (combined) was AMI (heart attack) which accounted for 5% of all hospitalizations. The second leading cause of hospitalization among males was COPD, which accounted for 4% of all hospitalizations. Complications of surgical or medical care, heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases, and cardiac arrhythmias were also among the leading causes of hospitalizations for Simcoe Muskoka males.

The leading cause 1 of hospitalizations among Simcoe Muskoka females during this time period was COPD, which accounted for 4% of all hospital stays. Fracture of femur, arthrosis of the knee (including knee replacement), complications of surgical or medical care, heart attack, and pneumonia were also among the leading causes of hospitalizations for females during this time period. Figure four depicts the leading causes 1 of hospitalizations for both males and females.

Figure Four
160210LCoHISHMT_Male_PIE
160210LCoHISHMT_Female_PIE
 
By Age Group

In Simcoe Muskoka between 2011 and 2015, the leading causes of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, among infants less than one year were: perinatal conditions, diseases of respiratory system and congenital anomalies, which accounted for more than three-quarters of all hospitalizations. During the same time period, among children one to nine years of age, diseases of the respiratory system were the leading cause of hospitalization. The most common forms of respiratory illness among children one to nine years were: chronic diseases of tonsils or adenoids, asthma, and pneumonia. 

Diseases of digestive system (including appendix) and injuries & poisonings were the leading cause of hospitalization among youth and adolescents (between 10 and 19 years of age) in Simcoe Muskoka, each accounting for nearly one-quarter of all hospitalizations between 2011 and 2015. During this same time period among younger adults (between 20 and 44 years) diseases of the digestive system and injuries & poisonings were the leading causes of hospitalizations, accounting for more than one-third of all hospital stays. 

Diseases of the circulatory system were the leading cause of hospitalization for older adults and seniors during this time period. Table one below provides age-specific leading causes of hospitalization using both ICD-10 chapters and ISHMT groupings 1 for Simcoe Muskoka between 2011 and 2015 (combined).

Table one

Leading Causes of Hospitalization, Simcoe Muskoka Residents, by Age Group, 2011 to 2015 (combined)

AGE
GROUP

# OF HOSPITAL STAYS

ICD-10
CHAPTER

ISHMT
GROUPING

<1 yr

3,188

Perinatal Conditions - 46.5%
Respiratory Diseases - 19%
Congenital Anomalies – 13%

Congenital Anomalies – 13%
Premature Birth / Low Birth Weight - 12%

1-9 yrs

4,837

Respiratory Diseases - 39%
Injuries or Poisonings - 12%
Infectious or Parasitic Diseases - 9%

Tonsils/Adenoids - 12%
Asthma - 8%
Pneumonia - 7%

10-19 yrs

4,531

Digestive System Diseases - 25%
Injuries or Poisonings - 23%
Respiratory Diseases - 10.5%

Diseases of the Appendix - 15%
Poisoning - 7%
Diabetes - 7%

20-44 yrs

18,690

Digestive System Diseases - 25%
Injuries or Poisonings - 17%
Genitourinary System Diseases - 14%

Diseases of the Appendix - 6%
Poisoning - 4%
Menstrual/Menopausal - 4%

45-64 yrs

46,268

Circulatory System Diseases - 20%
Digestive System Diseases - 17%
Cancer - 12%

Heart Attack - 5.5%
Arthrosis of the Knee - 4%
Surgical/Medical Complications - 4%

65-74 yrs

33,901

Circulatory System Diseases - 24%
Musculoskeletal System Diseases - 13%
Digestive System Diseases - 12%

Arthrosis of the Knee - 6%
COPD - 6%
Heart Attack - 5%

75+ yrs

51,461

Circulatory System Diseases - 26%
Respiratory Diseases - 14%
Injuries or Poisonings - 13%

COPD - 7%
Heart Failure - 6%
Fracture of Femur - 5%

Data source: Inpatient Discharges & Population Estimates [2010-2014], Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO, Date Extracted: [November 1, 2016].

References

1. Source: International Shortlist for Hospital Morbidity Tabulation, Eurostat, OECD, & WHO, November 2008. [cited 2010 December 13]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/implementation/ hospitaldischarge.htm