Map of Simcoe Muskoka

Leading Causes

Leading Causes of Hospitalization

Overall
By Sex
By Age Group

Overall

The leading causes of hospitalizations used for this page are based on the chapters found in International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) and the International Shortlist for Hospital Morbidity Tabulation (ISHMT) adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) 1 with modifications discussed and approved by the Leading Cause Group subcommittee of the Core Indicators Working Group, Association of Public Health Epidemiologist in Ontario (APHEO).

Hospitalizations are counted at patient discharge as recorded in the Hospital Discharge Abstract Database (DAD). Causes are based on the most responsible physician diagnosis (diagnosis associated with the longest duration of treatment) during a given hospital stay. Mental Disorders (ICD-10 Chapter 5) are excluded because of changes in the way these data are reported by hospitals. Hospital stays due to pregnancy and birth (ICD-10 Chapter 15) were also excluded, because these do not represent burden of illness and are captured in the birth outcomes statistics (see Pregnancy and Before). Factors influencing health status & contact with health services (ICD-10 Chapter 21) and provisional codes for research and temporary assignment (ICD-10 Chapter 23) were also excluded as they do not represent diseases or conditions.

In 2016, there were more than 36,500 hospitalizations (as defined above) among residents of Simcoe Muskoka. The number one cause of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, in Simcoe Muskoka were diseases of circulatory system, which accounted for 19% of all hospital stays. The other leading causes of hospitalizations, by ICD-10 chapter, in Simcoe Muskoka were: diseases of digestive system (13%), injury & poisoning (11%), and diseases of respiratory system (11%). The leading causes of hospitalizations for Ontario were quite similar to what was observed in Simcoe Muskoka.

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When looking at the ISHMT causes 1 of hospitalization in Simcoe Muskoka in 2016, Acute Myocardial Infarction (i.e. heart attack) and COPD were the leading causes, each accounting for 4% of all hospitalizations. Other leading causes were: arthrosis of the knee (includes knee replacement), complications of surgical or medical care, heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and pneumonia, each accounting for approximately 3% of all hospitalizations.

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By Sex

In Simcoe Muskoka in 2016, the leading cause of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, for both males and females were diseases of circulatory system. However, the proportion of hospitalizations for diseases of circulatory system was higher for males (22%) when compared with females (15%). Diseases of digestive system, diseases of respiratory system, and injuries & poisoning were other leading causes of hospitalizations for both sexes.

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The leading causes of hospitalizations, according to the ISHMT groupings 1, for males in Simcoe Muskoka in 2016 was heart attack which accounted for 6% of all hospitalizations. The second leading cause of hospitalization among males was COPD, which accounted for 4% of all hospitalizations. Complications of surgical or medical care, heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases, and cardiac arrhythmias were also among the leading causes of hospitalizations for Simcoe Muskoka males.

The leading causes 1 of hospitalizations among Simcoe Muskoka females in 2016 was COPD and arthrosis of the knee (including knee replacement), each of which accounted for 4% of all hospital stays. Fracture of femur, complications of surgical or medical care, heart attack, and pneumonia were also among the leading causes of hospitalizations for females during this time period.

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By Age Group

In Simcoe Muskoka in 2016, the leading causes of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, among infants less than one year were: perinatal conditions, diseases of respiratory system and congenital anomalies, which accounted for about three-quarters of all hospitalizations for this age-group. During the same time period, among children one to nine years of age, diseases of the respiratory system were the leading cause of hospitalization. The most common causes of respiratory illness hospitalizations among children one to nine years were asthma and pneumonia. 

Diseases of digestive system (including appendix) and injuries & poisonings were the leading cause of hospitalization among youth and adolescents (between 10 and 19 years of age) in Simcoe Muskoka, each accounting for more than one-fifth of all hospitalizations among this age-group. Also in 2016 among younger adults (between 20 and 44 years), diseases of the digestive system were the leading causes of hospitalizations, accounting for nearly one-quarter of all hospital stays. 

Diseases of the circulatory system were the leading cause of hospitalization for older adults and seniors in 2016. The table below provides age-specific leading causes of hospitalizations using both ICD-10 chapters and ISHMT groupings 1 for Simcoe Muskoka in 2016.

Leading Causes of Hospitalization, Simcoe Muskoka Residents, by Age Group, 2016

AGE
GROUP

# OF HOSPITAL STAYS

ICD-10
CHAPTER

ISHMT
GROUPING

<1 yr

815

Perinatal Conditions - 50%
Respiratory Diseases - 16%
Congenital Anomalies – 8%

Premature Birth / Low Birth Weight – 12%
Congenital Anomalies - 8%

1-9 yrs

989

Respiratory Diseases - 33%
Injuries or Poisonings - 14%
Signs, Symptoms and Abnormal Findings - 8%

Tonsils/Adenoids - 10%
Asthma - 7%
Pneumonia - 5%

10-19 yrs

962

Digestive System Diseases - 23%
Injuries or Poisonings - 15%
Endocrine, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases - 11%

Diseases of the Appendix - 12%
Poisoning - 8%
Diabetes - 5%

20-44 yrs

4,044

Digestive System Diseases - 23%
Injuries or Poisonings - 15%
Genitourinary System Diseases - 11%

Diseases of the Appendix - 6%
Poisoning - 4%
Surgical/Medical Complications - 4%

45-64 yrs

10,227

Circulatory System Diseases - 18%
Digestive System Diseases - 15%
Cancer - 11%

Heart Attack - 6%
Arthrosis of the Knee - 4%
Surgical/Medical Complications - 4%

65-74 yrs

7,787

Circulatory System Diseases - 22%
Musculoskeletal System Diseases - 12%
Digestive System Diseases - 11%

Arthrosis of the Knee - 5%
Heart Attack - 5%
  COPD - 5%

75+ yrs

11,737

Circulatory System Diseases - 25%
Respiratory Diseases - 13%
Injuries or Poisonings - 12%

COPD - 6%
Heart Failure - 6%
Fracture of Femur - 5%

Data source: Inpatient Discharges [2016], Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO, Date Extracted: [November 1, 2017].

References

1. Source: International Shortlist for Hospital Morbidity Tabulation, Eurostat, OECD, & WHO, November 2008. [cited 2010 December 13]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/implementation/ hospitaldischarge.htm Any single-cause diagnosis beginning with ‘Other’ was grouped together with ‘All Others’ (e.g. (120) Other Injuries).