By Age Group
Cancer incidence data are derived from the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) operated by Cancer Care Ontario. The OCR contains information on Ontario residents who have been newly diagnosed with all types of malignant cancers, with the exception of basal cell and squamous cell (non-melanoma) skin cancers. Beginning in 2014, the OCR adopted the National Cancer Institute (NCI) SEER standards for counting multiple primaries for cancer cases diagnosed in 2010 and beyond. This standard is more liberal than the previously used case counting rules from the modified version of the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR). Cancer data presented on this and other HealthSTATS pages only includes cases captured using the more conservative IACR definition for all years in order to maintain comparability over time. As a result, figures presented on HealthSTATS may be lower than those reported by Cancer Care Ontario as they are using the revised counting methodology.
The rate of new cancer cases (also called the incidence rate) provides a measure of the risk of developing cancer over a given period of time. In 2012 among Simcoe Muskoka male residents, there were nearly 400 new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed with an age-standardized incidence rate for males of all ages of 106 (91.1, 117.7) per 100,000 population. This was not significantly different from the Ontario male prostate cancer incidence rate of 102 (99.7, 104.1) per 100,000. The 2012 prostate cancer incidence rates in both Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario as a whole were the lowest rates observed since the mid 1990’s. Prostate cancer is the leading cause of new cancer cases among males in both Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario.
Figure one below shows the trend in prostate cancer incidence in both Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario over the twenty-seven year period from 1986 to 2012. The prostate cancer incidence rates increased sharply from 1986 to 1993 with an average annual increase of 12 (8.1, 15.8) per cent per year in Simcoe Muskoka and 8 (5.8, 10.4) per cent per year in Ontario as a whole. The significant increase in prostate cancer incidence coincided with the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in 1988. This increase was followed by a short decline in the rates before a subsequent second peak in the early 2000’s. An abrupt rise and fall in incidence is common when a new method of early diagnosis is introduced.
Both the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care and the US Preventative Services Task Force recommend against PSA-based screening for prostate cancer for men of all ages. The US recommendations came out in 2012, which may have contributed to the significant decrease in prostate cancer incidence observed both in Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario as a whole in 2012.
By Age Group
The risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is highest among seniors 65 years of age and older. The age-specific prostate cancer incidence rates between 2007 and 2012 (combined) in Simcoe Muskoka were higher than the comparable provincial rates for male seniors 65 years of age and older, with the largest difference in the rates observed for seniors 75 years of age and older (see figure two).
The age-specific prostate cancer incidence rates in Simcoe Muskoka (figure three) and Ontario (figure four) follow a similar pattern over the past quarter of a century. Among adult males 45 to 64 years of age, the rates observed in the late 1980’s / early 1990’s more than doubled by the late 1990’s / early 2000’s before leveling off. Among older adult males 65 to 74 years of age, the rates observed in the late 1980’s / early 1990’s nearly doubled by the late 1990’s / early 2000’s before declining slightly, but significantly, in the late 2000’s / early 2010’s. Among male seniors 75 years of age and older, the rates remained relatively stable from 1986 to 1998 before decreasing significantly from 1999 to 2012.